HOW IT IS MADE; PLANTING AND HARVESTING
Planting and tending to the agave plant is a skill that has been passed down from generation to generation – many distilleries have grown to a larger scale with up to date equipment, but the tending to the plants remains a manual effort. Ain't no gadgets and shortcuts here. Tequila comes from the Blue Weber Plant (and only this plant – by law!) which is grown in five different states: Jalisco, Nayarit, Michoacán, Tamaulipas and Guanajuato. The agave grows in miraculously neat rows for up to 8-10 years before the plant is ripe and ready to be harvested. The final taste all depends on where the plant is grown; agaves grown in the highlands (with red clay-like soil) will produce sweeter floral tasting tequilas, and agaves grown in the lowlands, aka Tequila Valley, [the so-called lowlands are about 1600m above sea level!] are more herb-like in nature.
During harvesting the leaves and thorns are hacked off by the harvester, who is called a Jimador (yes THAT’S where the name comes from!) using an old school tool; the coa (a huge large knife to you and I) leaving only the heart of the agave (piña).
WARNING: those thorns will prick you, and they prick HARD, releasing a little poison making that pain last (and BarChick can vouch for that). At this point, the piñas look like weird pineapple kinda things.
COOKING AND MILLING
The piñas are taken to the distillery to be chopped into halves and quarters, and the male part of the plant (cogollos), which is full of wax, is removed. It is not included in the cooking process because the wax would have a bad, bitter effect on the taste. Once removed, the plants are cooked in large ovens, and the starches are turned into fermentable sugars (they are usually cooked for up to 3 days). They are then transported to the milling area where the cooked agave is pressed to get the rich flavours out. They do this by using a tahona – a traditional grinding wheel. Traditionally this large stone wheel would have been pulled around by horses, but these distilleries have grown MASSIVELY so tractors are now usually used, which can cope with the high product demand a tad better! Phewf.
Once all the juices have been squeezed and minced they are then washed with water and strained before being placed in the fermentation tanks (usually stainless steel but sometimes wooden if you want details) – and this is where the magic happens – ALCOHOL time (finally). Yeast is added to the tanks to get the process going, and they are heated slightly. The yeast tends to be naturally produced, using only yeast that grows naturally on the agave leaves, although some distilleries use cultivated and propagated yeast strains. This whole process can last between one to six days (Ocho’s fermentation is 4-5 days which is pretty much the longest for tequila, with some being as short as 24 hours).
The liquid then is taken through a double distillation process. The liquid is evaporated and then condensed back into a liquid. After the first distillation the liquid has an alcohol level of 20%, but the second distillation (which takes 3-4 hours) is much higher, close to 55%. The liquid is divided into heads, hearts and tails – with only the heart of the process being used.
The real ageing takes place over the 8-10 years it takes to grow before being harvested. This means after distillation the ageing process is pretty short. Blanco - Straight after being distilled (or up to 60 days in wood). Reposado – a minimum of 2 months Añejo – a minimum of 12 months Extra Añjeo – a minimum of 3 years
TEQUILA BRANDS AND THEIR QUIRKY TRAITS:
The small artisanal guys:
La Alteῆa Distillery - OCHO: The Ocho distillery is up in the highlands, with various fields of different agave (10 if you’re asking). Similar to the labelling of fine wines they are the first ever ‘tequila vintage’, which states the exact year of harvest and location the agave plants were grown. The legendary Carlos is in control over here – he’s a bit of a G. When asked to compare women with his tequila this was his theology: Blanco - The woman who is lying next to you at 5am, naked and natural. Reposado - A woman in a little bit of makeup - with added flavours and perfections Nejro Añejo - The woman in a night dress, with her hair done and elegant jewellery - much more refined.
Vivanco’s Distillery - CABEZA: Their fermentation is started with Champagne yeast (FANCY) and it’s done in the winter months as the cooler temperature gives it a fruitier nature… nice tactics. Their bottle is the bottle of all bottles. They did studies with bartenders to perfect it, making it perfect for any speed rail. Everything was thought of from the peel-able labels to ensure bottle reuse and their logo engraved at the bottom so it can be seen when it is poured, to the groove for the bartender’s fingers. Wise.
The Big Industrial Guys:
Pernod Ricard Distillery - OLMECA: This distillery is in the highlands where the air tends to be thinner – so you can blame your dizziness on that and not your hangover, awesome! Jesus Hernandez is the master distiller and main man here and he knows everything there is to know about tequila.
Herradura Distillery - HERRADURA: During the fermentation at the Herradura distillery they play classical music through speakers to the barrels as they believe it helps along the process. Who are we to judge?! The tanks were bubbling happily. Want a bit of history? You’ll get it here – the old original distillery from 1870 still stands today in the grounds for people to visit. La Rojeῆa Distillery - CUERVO: These guys have their own fricking Cuervo Express train… that’s what we’re talking about.